Brazilian Cheese Bread

Brazilian Cheese Bread


Back in the summer, my daughter’s class at school chose a mini project on Brazil, and I was asked if I could bring in some food for them to taste.

Of all the dishes I prepared, Brigadeiros were naturally the overwhelming favourite. However, these little cheese breads were also a great hit, with many pupils coming back for seconds and thirds.

In essence, they are a Brazilian version of Gougères, but differ in that they are made with gluten-free tapioca flour. If you’re at all apprehensive about tackling Gougères or even choux paste in general, then these little cheese breads – or pão de queijo to give them their proper name – are an ideal place to start.

They don’t require as much cooking as Gougères, and since there is no gluten to develop, the mixture is much more straight forward. The crisp outsides contrast deliciously well with the soft, stretchy insides (the stretch being provided by the cheese).

I’ve baked mine a little longer than is traditional, because I do love some crunch, but you can take them out earlier if you prefer them pale and interesting. I’ve also baked them in mini-muffin tins to give them a nice shape – gluten free bakes generally need a little help to ‘get it together’.

These are delicious straight from the oven, but will also keep a few days in an airtight container. Warm in a gentle (150°C, 130°C Fan) oven for 10 minutes.

I bought my tapioca flour here

Brazilian Cheese Bread

Makes approx. 24 mini-muffin-sized breads.

125ml whole milk
60ml vegetable oil
½ teaspoon salt
140g tapioca flour
1 large egg
extra egg-whites (maybe)
125g strong cheddar or fresh Parmesan – grated

  • Preheat the oven to 200°C, 180°C Fan.
  • Heat the milk, oil and salt in a pan until just below boiling.
  • Remove from the heat and add the tapioca flour.
  • Stir vigorously until no dry flour is visible.
  • Tip the paste into a bowl and beat with a mixer (stand or hand) until cooled enough that no steam is visible rising from the bowl.
  • Add the egg and beat thoroughly until fully combined.
  • If the mixture seems a little tight, add a little extra egg white. It’s better for the dough to be a little too soft than too firm.
  • Add the cheese and mix thoroughly.
  • Grease a mini muffin tin.
  • Use an ice-cream scoop to portion out the dough into the prepared mini-muffin tin. Don’t fill the cups more than 2/3 full.
  • Bake for 10 minutes, then turn the heat down to 180°C, 160°C Fan for a further 15-20 minutes.
  • Cool on a wire rack.

Things To Do With Choux

Different choux bun toppingsWotchers!

This is my 100th post – go me! – and will be the last before I take a break from the blog for a month or so, so I decided I would make it a special one so that you’d have lots to keep you busy over the coming weeks.

I’ve talked about choux pastry before, in an everything-you-ever-wanted-to-know-about-baking-choux-pastry tutorial and to introduce the lesser known savoury version, the gougère. Choux pastry is usually used to make a sweet cream puff, which can also be served with a pouring of warm chocolate sauce as profiteroles, or cemented together with a glass-clear caramel as the impressive croquembouche. Alternatively, choux pastry makes the equally recognisable eclair.

This repertoire is all well and good, but being able to count the number of recipes on one hand is surprisingly limited in terms of what may be created with choux pastry, when compared to the dozens, if not hundreds of creations made from both shortcrust and puff pastry.

So here are a few suggestions for expanding your choux pastry repertoire. Use the recipe from here and why not try several of these variations from the one batch?

Have fun!

1. Finishes

The simplest way to glamourise your choux buns is to add a finish, or glaze that will enhance both the appearance and the flavour.

Unglazed vs Glazed choux buns

Unglazed (L) vs Glazed (R) choux buns

a) Egg glaze

Brush your choux buns with the beaten yolk of an egg mixed with a tablespoon of water just before they go into the oven. This will result in a deep, rich mahogany brown with a very pleasing sheen.


Choux buns sprinkled with nib sugar and salt flakes

b) Chouquettes

After brushing over the egg glaze, sprinkle some nibbed sugar over the buns, or for a savoury bun, use flakes of sea salt. Nibbed sugar is available from Bakery Bits, Amazon and Melbury and Appleton.

Choux with Craquelin

Choux with sweet (L) and savoury (R) craquelin.

c) Craquelin

Those of you that keep a keen eye on the international world of patisserie – What? You mean you don’t do that? Stop looking at me funny! – will have noticed the current trend of adding texture to choux buns. This is done by making a paste of brown sugar, butter and flour and rolling it out thinly between two sheets of plastic film.

The sheet of paste is then frozen for 10-15 minutes before circles (or fingers if you’re making eclairs) are cut out. The disc of craquelin paste is then placed lightly on the top of the choux paste just before it goes into the oven. It provides a great texture, but be warned, it will only remain crisp on the day you bake it.

I also made a savoury version of the craquelin by replacing the sugar with fresh grated parmesan, for use on gougeres and other savoury choux.

Sweet Craquelin
50g soft dark brown sugar
50g plain flour
40g butter

Savoury Craquelin
50g fresh grated hard Italian cheese (Parmesan, Pecorino Romano, Grana Padano)
50g plain flour
40g butter

  • Blitz the sugar (or cheese), flour and butter in a food processor until the mixture comes together into a ball.. If it doesn’t, don’t worry, there’ll be enough moisture to make it hold together when pressed.
  • Roll the paste out between two sheets of cling film until extremely thin – about 2mm.
  • Put the sheet of paste into the freezer for 15 minutes to firm up.
  • Using a pastry cutter of the same diameter as your choux buns, cut out circles of the frozen paste and balance the discs on the top of each choux bun.
  • Bake/cool/fill as usual.

2. Variations

The Religieuse

Sweet (L) and Savoury (R) Religieuses

Sweet (L) and Savoury (R) Religieuses

These little choux delights were allegedly created in 1856, in the famous Frascati cafe in Paris. They consist of  a small choux bun atop a larger choux bun, both filled with a flavoured pastry cream. Both buns are then dipped in fondant icing, usually of the same flavour as the pastry cream, and are joined together with a ruff of whipped cream. They are named for their resemblance to a nun in her habit.


Choose any flavour or combination of flavours for your pastry cream and fondant, and use a large star tip to pipe the whipped cream ruff. For a savoury version, use a soft, white cheese instead of the cream to form the ruff. Set the religieuse in a blind-baked, shortcrust pastry tart, for that finishing touch.

Choux Divorces

Choux Divorce

Another simple presentation idea, also using two choux buns, this time of the same size. One is filled with a coffee pastry cream and glazed with coffee fondant, the other with chocolate pastry cream and chocolate fondant. The two buns are then joined together with whipped cream.

The Harlequin, The Acorn and The Salambo

Harlequin and Acorn

All three of these are made from a short, oval choux bun, about half the length of an eclair, and a little bit wider.

  1. The Harlequin – Caramel pastry cream filling, chocolate and caramel fondant icing, each covering half of the bun.
  2. The Acorn – Kirsch pastry cream, pale green fondant icing, one end of the bun dipped in chocolate sprinkles.
  3. The Salambo -Not pictured, but a variation of The Acorn with Grand Marnier flavoured pastry cream. In the Champagne region of France, the colour of the icing is used to denote the flavouring of the filling: white = vanilla, green = rum and pink = Grand Marnier. Chopped pistachio nuts are an alternative option to the chocolate sprinkles.

Paris Brest

Choux Paris-Brest

Created in 1910 with the inspiration of the famous cycling race, the Paris-Brest is formed from a circle of choux pastry, topped with slivered/sliced almonds before baking and traditionally filled with a butter-enriched pastry cream (crème mousseline) flavoured with praline. The Paris-Brest can be made large enough to serve several people, measuring as uch as 30-50cm, or as a smaller, individual serving. Rather than a plain circle of dough, I like to pipe six tiny choux buns in a circle, which will then rise and join themselves together during baking. Once filled, dust with icing sugar to serve.


Choux Polka

This final variation is  a little different in that the choux pastry is piped around the edge of a sweet pastry base and then both are baked together. The centre is then filled with pastry cream, dusted with icing sugar, and a heated metal skewer used to caramelise the sugar in criss-crossing lines. Other variations include a poured caramel sauce, and a brulée of sugar over the top of the pastry cream.

To make the sweet pastry:
This has a slightly different method to normal, and is sometimes known as Kneaded Pastry, in that the paste is broken into small pieces and then re-formed several times before being chilled. Best made the day before, it should chill for a minimum of 2 hours before rolling out.

140g plain flour
60g butter
1tbs sugar
1/2tsp salt
1 large yolk
ice-cold water

  • Blitz the flour, butter, sugar, salt and yolk in the bowl of a food processor until the mixture resembles breadcrumbs.
  • Gradually add cold water, one tablespoon at a time, until the mixture comes together.
  • Tip out the mixture onto a floured surface and knead smooth.
  • Using the back of a spoon, break off small pieces of pastry. It’s similar to scooping a bit of butter to spread on toast, but with more of a squashing-onto-the-worktop motion.
  • When all of the pastry has been broken off, reform it into a ball and repeat the breaking process.
  • Repeat a third time, then wrap the pastry in plastic and chill until required.

For the Polkas

  • Preheat the oven to 180°C, 160°C Fan.
  • Roll out the pastry thinly (3-4mm) and cut into circles using a large, plain cutter.
  • Lay the pastry circles onto a baking sheet lined with parchment.
  • Prick the pastry with a fork to prevent it rising too much during baking.
  • Put the choux pastry into a piping bag fitted with either a plain or star tip, and pipe a ring of choux around each circle.
  • Brush the pastries with a mixture of egg yolk and water to glaze.
  • Bake for 15 minutes until the choux is risen and free of moisture.
  • Cool on wire racks.
  • When cold, fill the centres with pastry cream, dust with icing sugar and caramelise the sugar with a hot metal skewer.


Cheese-filled Gougeres


Remember that tutorial I put together for Choux Pastry?

Well here’s a yum idea for taking things a little further than chocolate profiteroles – cheesey, savoury Gougères!

You can pipe them or, as I prefer, just use a couple of teaspoons to roughly shape a ball of dough. They can be enjoyed as is – the addition of the cheese makes for a more substantial filling that the sweet variety, or, as I’ve done here, glamoured them up with the addition of puff pastry and a deliciously savoury cheese filling.

I shamelessly stole the puff pastry idea from a clip I saw on the Food Channel – the ones I saw were for sweet cream puffs, but they work just as deliciously with the savoury ones as well. Simply cut out small(8cm) squares of puff pastry and then pipe/spoon a walnut-sized blob of choux pastry into the centre. Fold the four corners into the middle, around the choux pastry, and bake as normal. The puff pastry forms a crisp, flaky cup into which the choux dough expands and makes for an awesome added texture that contrasts so well with the cooked choux.

Serving suggestions: With the puff pastry or without, with a filling or without, with both filling AND pastry, or without either. Absolutely up to you.


1 batch of Choux Pastry from here, up to the point where ‘dropping consistency’ has been achieved, then:

80g Gruyere cheese, grated [1]
1 tsp dry yellow mustard powder[2]
salt and pepper

Puff pastry[3]

  • Add the cheese, mustard, salt and pepper to the choux dough and stir well to combine.
  • Preheat the oven to 200°C, 180°C Fan
  • Roll out – or if you’ve got ready rolled pastry, then unroll – the puff pastry and divide it into squares of about 8cm. The pastry should be about 4-5mm thick.
  • Cover a baking sheet with parchment paper, then lay out the pieces of puff pastry. Make sure there is about 3cm between each piece to allow for the pastry puffing up during cooking.
  • Using 2 teaspoons ( or a piping bag with a 1cm plain tip if you prefer), place walnut-sized blobs of the cheesy choux dough in the middle of each piece of puff pastry.
  • Fold the four corners of the pastry squares inwards, towards the blob of choux paste, until they almost meet in the middle.
  • Brush the outsides with beaten egg white and sprinkle with additional cheese if liked.
  • If you run out of pastry squares, just spoon the extra choux onto the baking paper and cook them as regular gougeres.
  • Cook each tray at 200°C, 180°C Fan oven for 10 minutes, then turn oven down to 175°C, 155°C Fan to continue baking/drying for 20 minutes more. NO PEEKING! If you open the door to check their progress, you let out all the heat which means no steam which means no puffing up.
  • Check for done-ness at 25 minutes (10 mins + 15 mins). These choux buns will be a DEEP golden brown when done, and the puff pastry puffed, flakey and golden. If you’re not sure, remove just ONE bun and cut it open and see for yourself.
  • Immediately poke a hole in each choux puff to let out the steam and help prevent them deflating as they cool.
  • The choux will keep in an airtight box for a couple of days – ‘refresh’ them in a 100°C, 80°C Fan oven for 10-15 minutes to crisp them up again before eating.

You can serve the gougères immediately, still warm from the oven, or you can add a filling. Here are a couple that I particularly like, one warm, one cold. Use a piping bag with a long nozzle to add the filling, or slice off a lid and just spoon it in.

Cold fillings: Beat some cream cheese with a little creme fraiche and add some coarsley grated black pepper and some fresh herbs – I used lemon thyme in the photo at the top of the page. Alternatively, you could stir in some finely chopped ham instead of the herbs. The contrast of the warm, crisp pastry and the chilled filling is delicious.

Warm fillings: A thick cheese ‘custard’ completes the cheesy experience of each puff – great for indulgent, gourmet snacking!

30g plain flour
30g butter
50g Parmesan cheese – grated
2 large egg yolks
1/2 tsp dry yellow mustard powder
200ml milk

  • Whisk all the ingredients together and bring to a simmer, whisking continuously.
  • Simmer for 1 minute to ‘cook out’ the flour.
  • If the mixture seems a little thick, add a little more milk and stir thoroughly.

Sweet Version – see pic below

Proceed as above without adding any cheese/seasoning and spoon/pipe the plain choux onto the puff pastry squares.
Fill each cooked puff with creme patissière and finish with a dusting of icing sugar.

Cream Puffs

[1] Gruyere cheese has a lovely strong, nutty flavour and also melts really easily. You can use any strongly flavoured cheese that you like though – if you’re using hard Italian cheese (parmesan, grana padano etc), then use just 50g.

[2] Top Tip: The taste of anything cheesy can be improved by the addition of a little dry mustard powder. In the UK, the most familiar brand is made by Colman’s and is sold in an iconic bright yellow tin. The quantity isn’t enough to overpower, but the spiciness adds a subtle piquancy that sets off the cheese flavour beautifully.

[3] Feel free to make your own, but to be honest, for this recipe I used ready made. Also, the strong cheese flavour of the gougères means you can get away with buying the cheaper type of puff pastry – as opposed to the ‘all butter’ type – *gasp* I know, right? Sacrilege! If you’re going to make the sweet version cream puff, then my recommendation would be that you don’t scrimp – use the all-butter puff pastry. The ready rolled packs are a great time-saver.

Choux Pastry

Choux Buns


I’ve been thinking about doing a post on choux pastry for some time, and having surveyed via Twitter what the general feeling was, I decided that there was sufficient general enthusiasm for the idea, so here it is!

Here you’ll find all the hints, tips and tricks that I have picked up from books, television, the internet and word of mouth gathered together in one post to – hopefully – guide you through the steps to producing a successful bake. Choux pastry is not tricky, but when recipes tell you WHAT to do, and not WHY you’re doing it, I don’t think it either helps or encourages people to have a go. I’m hoping that by including the reasons WHY you should follow each instruction, together with, most importantly, what you can SEE at each stage of the process, everyone will enjoy success with this recipe/tutorial.

It’s also going to be short on intro, long on explanation, so let’s get on with it!

What is Choux Pastry?

Choux pastry was invented (What? You didn’t think I was just going to write the recipe, did you? Gotta have some history too 😉 ) by the chef of Catherine de Medici in 1533 and is unique in that it is the only pastry that is cooked twice – once whilst being mixed, and again when it is baked. A soft dough of water, butter, flour, and eggs is combined and then either spooned or piped onto parchment paper for baking.

Choux pastry can be used to make both sweet and savoury items. On the sweet side are profiteroles, cream puffs, Paris-Brest, religieuses, eclairs, Gâteau St. Honoré, and the impressive croquembouche. Savoury choux buns are known as Gougères and are generally flavoured with cheese and herbs, and occasionally also filled with a thickened savoury sauce.


Liquid: Most choux recipes will use water, but I prefer a mixture of water and milk. I think it gives the dough a little extra richness, and helps with browning.

Butter: Don’t even think of using anything else.

Flour: Two options: plain flour and bread flour. The high protein in the bread flour helps it absorb liquid which will turn into steam in the oven and puff up the pastries. The gluten will help strengthen the pastry crust once cooked, which is helpful if you’re planning on building a structure with the finished puffs. If a more delicate pastry is desired, then perhaps plain flour might suit the purpose better. You decide.

Eggs: The emulsifying power of the yolks acts as a kind of glue to hold the butter and the flour together. Just as the high protein in the flour is of benefit, it’s the protein in the eggs that do the same job – and the protein in eggs is the whites. So it’s odd to see so many choux recipes recommending extra yolks be added to choux pastry. It’s not yolks you need at all, its extra whites (maybe).


There are several approaches to making choux pastry, from gadget-free to high-tech. Choose the one that’s right for your situation.

Saucepan and wooden spoon: The most basic equipment. The saucepan is needed to heat the liquid ingredients, and the spoon to stir in the flour and to keep the mix moving whilst the dough dries. The saucepan should be larger than you think you need, as adding the flour all at once can be rather messy. Once the dough has dried sufficiently, you can then go on to mix in the eggs in the pan as well, but it will give your arms a real work-out. For a couple of reasons, I choose the easier option – gadgets!

Mixers: Not compulsory. I have the luxury of a beautiful stand mixer, but electric beaters work just as well, and with less arm ache than the saucepan/spoon combo.

Piping Bags: Not compulsory. For choux buns, the batter can be spooned out using just a couple of teaspoons. Depending on your skills, this can make for a slightly rustic appearance. I actually prefer to use two teaspoons when making savoury gougères for precisely this reason. If you want a more consistent appearance, then you can use a piping bag with either a plain or star shaped nozzled – 1cm diameter is my recommendation. Finally, a low-budget alternative is a re-sealable freezer bag with the corner snipped off.

Oven: Compulsory. Not going to get very far at all without one. Choux pastry needs to be cooked at 2 separate temperatures in order to achieve the best possible results. Initially, it needs quite a high heat so the dough will rise quickly form a crust that will set the shape of the shells. The temperature is then reduced to allow the outsides of the shells to become firm, while at the same time allowing the insides of the pastry to dry out.

Choux Pastry

150ml water
120ml whole milk
113g unsalted butter, cut into pieces
2 tbsp. sweetened condensed milk
0.5 tsp. salt
165g flour
4 large eggs
Extra egg whites

1 large egg yolk to glaze (optional)

  • Preheat oven to 200°C, 180°C Fan.
  • Sift the flour and set aside , alongside the cooker.
  • Crack the eggs into a jug and set next to your mixer.
  • Put the water, the milks, the butter and salt into a saucepan and bring to a full, rolling boil.
  • Add the flour all at once to the boiling mixture.
  • Take the pan off the heat and stir the mixture into a paste. It will look a bit like scrambled egg.

    Flour and liquid mix

    After the flour has been added – it will look a bit like scrambled egg. Keep stirring!

  • Return the pan to the heat, turn it to medium-low and continue stirring until the mixture comes together in a smooth lump and begins to stick to the pan a little.
  • Keep cooking and stirring it around over moderate heat to dry out the dough as much as possible. Time yourself. Three minutes. Seriously, set the timer. The drier the dough, the more eggs it will absorb, the puffier your choux buns will be.
    Cooked choux pastry

    Choux pastry after drying in the saucepan – the dough has become smooth and has come together in a ball.

    Residue in the pan when the dough has been sufficiently dried.

    Residue in the pan when the dough has been sufficiently dried.

  • At the end of the three minutes, the dough will have come together in a smooth(ish) lump and there should be a thin film of dried dough on the sides and bottom of the pan.
  • After drying the dough, it needs to cool down a little before the eggs are added, otherwise the eggs will cook upon contact. Rather than wait, be proactive! If you’re using just a saucepan and spoon, continue stirring vigorously. If you’re using gadgets, tip the dough into a bowl and and turn the beaters on at the slowest speed.
  • When you can no longer see steam rising from the bowl, the dough is sufficiently cooled.
  • At low speed, add the eggs, one at a time, beating thoroughly so that each egg is fully incorporated before adding the next.
  • Once all the eggs have been incorporated, check the consistency of the dough. Lots of my old recipe book mention ‘a dropping consistency’ when referring to cake and bun mixes – and really, there is no better description I can think of for the consistency we’re looking for. With the paddle of the stand mixer (or whatever you’re using) take a scoop of the pastry batter and see if it will drop smoothly and freely. The consistency should be similar to mayonnaise, or soft ice-cream. If the batter falls in a lump, or doesn’t fall at all, then it is too ‘tight’ and needs to be loosened by adding more egg whites. Do this gradually, adding a little at a time, checking that the egg-whites are fully incorporated before checking the consistency again.

    The ‘V’ of choux batter left hanging shows it now has perfect ‘dropping’ consistency.

    For a perfect consistency, what you want to see is a ‘V’ of batter left hanging once some dough has fallen. The dough should look smooth and glossy.

  • When the consistency of the dough is just right, its time to bake.
  • Fill a pastry bag fitted with a plain tip and pipe out as desired, or spoon out using teaspoons. If you’re especially skilled with a piping bag, then your choux buns will be smooth and sphere-like. I’m not, so mine usually look like Mr Whippy ice-creams. If you leave a point sticking up, it will blacken and burn long before the rest of the pastry cooks, so to eliminate this, wet a finger with water and on each bun, press the tip down gently.

    Flatten any points of dough before baking

    Flatten any points of dough (L) with a wetted finger before baking (R).

  • Mix the egg yolk with 1 tbs water and brush over the choux buns. This is optional. Glazing the choux buns makes them slightly darker, and more shiny. The photo at the top of this post has a mixture of both, which I think looks quite nice. You decide.

    Unglazed vs Glazed choux buns

    Unglazed (L) vs Glazed (R) choux buns

  • Cook the choux one tray at a time. Choux pastry is leavened when the water held in the paste turns to steam in the heat of the oven. Too many trays in the oven at one time will create too much humidity, and wet heat won’t dry your choux buns to crisp, golden orbs – they’ll steam, be soggy and collapse. The additional trays will sit and wait quite happily for their turn in the oven with no side effects.
  • Cook each tray at 200°C, 180°C Fan oven for 10 minutes, then turn oven down to 175°C, 155°C Fan to continue baking/drying for 20 minutes more. NO PEEKING! If you open the door to check their progress, you let out all the heat which means no steam which means no puffing up.
  • Check for done-ness at 25 minutes (10 mins + 15 mins). NB These choux buns will be a DEEP golden brown when done – and crisp and hollow like a table tennis ball. DO NOT take them out too early, as the insides will still be wet. If you’re not sure, remove just ONE bun and cut it open and see for yourself.

    Inside a choux bun

    Echo….cho….cho….o…o… Nice and hollow inside a choux bun.

  • Once the buns are cooked, remove from the oven and IMMEDIATELY poke a hole in the base of each with the point of a sharp knife to let out the steam. If you don’t do this, the steam will remain trapped inside and will make the bun soggy. You need to work fast, and sometimes it can be difficult to keep track of which buns you’ve done. My suggestion: Once you’ve poked a hole in a bun, put it back on the tray UPSIDE-DOWN. That way, its easy to see that any puffs the right way up have obviously not been done. To be really sure that the insides have dried out, once you have finished poking holes in each puff, you might like to return the tray to the oven for 5-10 minutes. Lower the heat slightly, or turn the oven off and leave the puffs drying as the oven cools.
  • Pipe or spoon your favourite fillings into the buns and serve.
  • A word or two about fillings: Wet fillings will make your choux pastry soggy. Whipped cream is pretty high on the ‘wet’ scale, so if you’re serving profiteroles, I suggest fill them just before serving. DON’T use cream from an aerosol – your hard work deserves more than that. And besides, I will personally hunt you down and spank you. Just kidding. (Or am I?? 😉 ) Custards and pastry creams are slightly better, and so can be filled with these a few hours earlier, though probably not more than 3 or 4 to be on the safe side.

And that’s it. I hope I’ve covered everything you ever wanted to know about making choux pastry, and I hope that, if you were slightly apprehensive about having a go, you feel a little more confident.

Please do let me know if there’s anything confusing  – I’m quite happy to edit for clarity,. I’m well aware that just because it seems clear to me, doesn’t mean it’s clear for everyone.

Happy Baking!